The decline of Japanese management mode the management mode of Japanese enterprises became a model for the world's economic and management circles in the 1980s. However, Japanese enterprises failed to maintain their prosperity in the 1990s when the environment changed dramatically, but failed to recover. People can not help but reflect on the limitations of their traditional management mode
as the birthplace of modern business administration education, western management has always had its positive representative significance in the world. Japanese enterprises and European and American enterprises have very different corporate culture, business philosophy, decision-making methods, personnel and wage systems. In terms of the stability of the management mode, both of them have distinct personality characteristics, maintain a certain degree of stability, and will be improved to varying degrees with the evolution of the times and the environment. However, the management mode advocated by Japanese enterprises is facing the challenge of economic development in the next stage
Pengye, a partner of Peking University Zongheng management consulting company, believes that Japanese enterprises have natural defects from the perspective of the basis of the performance management system
according to his analysis, the performance management system is based on job analysis. Job analysis includes job analysis and job evaluation. As a whole of these two parts, job analysis uses scientific methods to collect and analyze job information, and then classifies and evaluates them according to the nature, complexity, difficulty and required qualification conditions of the work, and forms job descriptions on this basis. The final job description is the foothold and foundation of performance management. Without job description, all forms of performance management can only be empty talk, boring and unconvincing
"On this point, the job analysis of Japanese enterprises is generally vague and unclear. The reason is still influenced by Japanese culture. Historically, Japan belongs to an agricultural nation, and the characteristics of the agricultural nation are 'mutual assistance and cooperation within the collective', that is, 'familialism'. Compared with individual talent, they pay more attention to the role of collaboration and technology. This is reflected in the management of Japanese enterprises It shows that the company emphasizes the collective concept and requires everyone to do the work of the Department. The work division of each employee is not detailed. The division of responsibilities of many positions is vague, and there is even obvious overlap and overlap. The defect is very obvious: if everyone is responsible for one thing, in fact, they are not responsible. Once there is a problem, it is impossible to find someone, because the responsibility is not broken down into individuals. "
Pengye believes that Japanese enterprises' overemphasis on the role of "cooperation" is in fact a manifestation of the enterprise's responsibility. For example, "after Japanese enterprises enter China, most of them still adopt the model of the modified plastics special committee of the China Plastics Association, which emphasizes the role of 'team' rather than the development of 'personality'. This concept directly leads enterprises to ignore personality and even innovation." In his opinion, the lack of innovation of Japanese enterprises in recent years is related to the "team" role that they have always advocated
"stringer is familiar with the western management mode, and he is bolder in action than the Japanese. His successful command of Sony's acquisition of MGM is the best performance. Sony needs a leader who is more open and understands the global market to lead them." Wang Yi said
Japanese enterprise management model has the limitations of rigidity and slow flow of factors. For example, in the personnel system, Japanese enterprises implement the lifelong employment system, which is conducive to the stability and long-term development of employees, but hinders the ability play and competition among employees and is not conducive to large-scale technological innovation. "This is in fact closely related to the conservative nature of the Japanese."
"According to statistics, the age of employees in Japanese game companies is relatively high, generally over 32 years old, which is' old 'in the global game industry. This may also be related to the lifelong employment system implemented by Japanese enterprises. Japanese are very loyal to their own companies, and usually stay in the same company all their lives. Japanese companies will also take care of the stable life of employees as important. If the company has no urgent crisis or employees have made major mistakes, Employees are not usually dismissed, so the ethics of 'lifelong employment' or a stable source of Japanese corporate culture will make the whole enterprise more or less rigid and devoid of vitality. " Pengye introduced
more importantly, in the period of economic recession, the tradition of lifelong employment system and business ideas have hindered enterprises from making financial improvement and organizational restructuring through layoffs and other means, reducing the ability of enterprises to resist risks and recession
Japanese enterprises implement the annual merit sequence system in the wage system, which is a wage system combining "seniority wage" and "ability wage". The wages of employees will be increased by a fixed amount for each year of growth since they enter the factory. The size of age and the length of continuous service will further strengthen the international economic and technical cooperation in the new material industry. Short term is not only an important factor determining the level of wages, but also an important basis for determining job promotion. "Therefore, it is difficult to see young staff holding important positions in Japanese enterprises, but there are such cases in some European and American companies." Huang Pei said
on the contrary, European and American enterprises directly link their employees' wages with their positions and performance, which is conducive to the cultivation of internal competition and innovation spirit. At the same time, the number of employees increases or decreases with the change of economic environment, and the enterprise has a strong ability to withstand recession
"In terms of decision-making and opinion exchange methods, Japanese enterprises emphasize collective decision-making and consensus, and the decision-making process is slow. Although the decision-making is implemented smoothly once it is determined, it is difficult to adapt to the rapidly changing market environment in the new economy; while European and American enterprises have different decision-making methods, and the decision-making process is rapid. Although there may be different opinions on the decision-making within the enterprise, they can make timely strategic response and adjustment to the market environment." Huang Pei said, "when dealing with Japanese enterprises, I can feel their caution because the decision-making is relatively slow. As an individual, I can't express any opinions."
Wang Yiyi gave a successful case to illustrate the result of the collision between western management ideas and Japanese management mode
carlos, a Brazilian, was the first non Japanese coo in 1999. Ghosn. In the first month of Nissan, he keenly found that the reason for the low decision-making efficiency of Japanese companies lies in the hidden rules that have spread in the company's decision-making procedures for several years - Japanese professional managers often avoid making mistakes at all costs in order to better protect their professional jobs
the preparation of antibacterial fabrics was once regarded as the professional wisdom of Japanese managers. As a result, Ghosn designed and established a new decision-making process and structure. He not only broke the bad habit of Japanese enterprises that had been promoted by age, education and experience for many years, but also a joint decision-making group composed of multi department managers has transformed the original professional inertia of Japanese managers into the advantage of human resources under the new structure. Then, he was pleasantly surprised to find that Nissan employees from top to bottom quickly accepted and adapted to this change in management procedures
his radical actions once made him the number one enemy in the eyes of Japanese traditionalists. But just six months later, he became an industrial hero in the hearts of the Japanese nation, because he easily brought Nissan out of the dilemma
"it can be said that the cases of stringer and Ghosn actually represent the west, and the extension rate gradually declines. The management model beats the Japanese management model. The former can bring more profits to the enterprise." Wangyi concludes. (end)